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教您在雅思作文中举例技巧

编辑:gxl发布时间:2012年11月9日 留言(0)

说明:教您在雅思作文中巧妙例证

  一、外显连接
  所谓外显连接是指用特定的连接词将相关信息进行连接。通常情况下,例子作为论据由for example, for instance, like, such as, take… as 等引出。
  如:it is undeniable that mobile phones have facilitated our lives in many different ways. For example, when an emergency occurs, such as a traffic accident or a violent crime, mobile phones can help the victims to call the police or an ambulance immediately for help. (摘自《最新雅思高分范文》)
  本例中,for example 引出例子论证“mobile phones have facilitated our lives in many different ways.” 而后面的 such as 则引出emergency 的具体形式。For instance 与它的用法完全相同,即后面要接句子例证。 Like, such as, take…as 等直接名词(或相当于名词的词)。由于这些都是基本常识,这里不再赘述。
  为了使连接词多样化,建议考生运用下面的一些短语(或句式)连接论点和论据:…is a case in point; …serve as a typical example;…can be taken as an example; one example is that… another one is that等。
  如:Working part time when you are studying in university is beneficial to your life. I myself is a case in point(or ‘my experiences serve as a typical example’). Through those experiences, I have learned to be independent and responsible.
  二、内化连接
  实际上,大家看原汁原味的文英文文章会发现有些信息的连接不用外显式,而是通过某些特定的词或者特定的方式给读者以清晰的层次感, 从而使文章信息传递更通畅。
  下面我们来看一下哪些例证可以省去连接词,实现内化连接。
  1. 人物经历作例子
  其中的人物可以是名人,Thomas Edison gave us an example that success only comes after persistence and hard work. 也可以是作者自己的亲身经历 I remember that ten years ago cell phones were unusual and seldom seen. 人物经历作例子因为其较强的故事性而引人关注。但是切记,如果运用名人做例证,要注意信息的准确性; 如果运用自己的亲身经历做例子则要注意例子选择是否典型、有说服力。但是无论怎样,有人物经历时,一定会给人以非常明确的细节信息的感觉,所以完全可以省去连接词。
  2. 数字信息作例子
  引入带有数字信息的例证,除可以更具体、更详实的说明观点外,也可以内化连接词,因为数字信息所要传递的一定是一个量化的概念,而这一概念就是它所要论证的中心。看个例子:
  The work was immense: filling about eighty large notebooks (and without a library to hand), Johnson wrote the definitions of over 40,000 words, and illustrated their many meanings with some 114,000 quotations drawn from English writing on every subject, from the Elizabethans to his own time.
  例子中immense是观点中心词,后面的具体数字都是对这一中心词的佐证。(当然我们不要忘记这里“:”也是在帮助这段文字内化连接,相当于“for example”)
  3. 专有名词信息作例子
  人名、地名属于细节信息的范畴,也经常出现在例证中,以一种’fact’的形式出现。如:
  Air pollution is increasingly becoming the focus of government and citizen concern around the globe. From Mexico City and New York to Singapore and Tokyo, new solutions to this old problem are being proposed and implemented with ever increasing speed.当你看到这些地名时,一定会想到它们是某一类具有相同性质的地域的代表,那么自然也就是’点’信息,而非‘面’信息,从而可以省去连接词的使用,却依然保持主次分明。
  其它诸如期刊杂志名、书名等专有名词也可以有类似的用法。
  4. 一些小的介词(短语)引导例子
  如果大家注意总结,会发现雅思阅读文章中有一些介词(短语)也可以引出例子。
  如:from…to: Toughened glass is found everywhere, from cars and bus shelters to the windows, walls and roofs of thousands of buildings around the world.
  再如:including: …..
  Other substances were then introduced: including fillers, catalysts and hexa.
  这里including 相当于such,like等。

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